The living organisms living in the environment are of two types, which belongs to the endotherms and ectotherms category based on the method adopted by them to regulate their body temperature. Endotherms have a difference in their internal temperature and external temperature and use metabolic heat for thermoregulation by thermogenesis, whereas ectotherms are known for using heat from the external environment and do not have metabolic processes in place to maintain a constant body temperature. Examples of endotherms are human beings, penguins, polar bears, and birds, whereas examples of ectotherms are lizards, snakes, frogs, fishes, and spiders, and other invertebrates. The circulatory system presents in the body, including blood vessels, arteries, and veins help thermoregulation. The methods known as vasodilation and vasoconstriction are involved in regulating internal temperature, which changes the dimension of blood vessels. The heat loss occurs due to the vasodilation process, which makes the blood to reach the body surface or skin from where the heat carried by the blood is removed out. The sympathetic nervous system, which is the part of the autonomic nervous system, stimulates vasodilation, which dilates the blood vessels, and heat loss takes place through the skin.
The Process of Thermoregulation
The environment or nature has animals of two types based on the process of thermoregulation, which is endotherms and ectotherms animals.
The animals belonging to the type known as endotherms are those that regulate their internal temperature by using the heat produced by metabolism to keep the temperature constant, which differs from the temperature of the external environment. The production of metabolic heat is known as thermogenesis which involves metabolic processes like cellular respiration and oxidative phosphorylation that make the internal body temperature. The example of endotherms are birds and mammals like humans, polar bears, and penguins.
The organism falling under the category known as ectotherms are those that stabilize their body temperature according to that of the external temperature instead of utilizing the metabolic heat. The reptiles like a lizard, amphibians like a frog, fishes, and invertebrates like spider are ectotherms that take heat energy from the environment to keep their internal temperature maintained.
The Circulatory System in Heat Loss
The organisms maintain or regulate the temperature by gaining and losing the heat with the help of blood circulation through the circulatory system. The circulatory system is a build-up of capillaries, blood vessels, arteries, and veins that carry the blood from one part of the body to the other. The loss of heat takes place mainly from the surface of the body, which is the skin, and this is achieved by regulating blood flow. The circulation of blood occurs through two processes, which are known as vasoconstriction and vasodilation. The narrowing or constriction of blood vessels is known as vasoconstriction that reduces the flow of blood. Vasodilation is the process of widening or dilation of the vessels of the blood, which leads to the increased flow of blood. The increased blood flow due to the dilated blood vessels makes the blood to reach the body surface that is skin, and from there, the heat is loosed out in the environment. The warmed blood arises due to increased internal temperature as found in endotherms, which can increase due to increased activity. The thermoregulation, including loss of heat from the body, is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, which is a division of the autonomic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system releases neurotransmitters that are involved in the process of vasodilation, which ultimately removes the excess heat out of the body surface. The mammals that have more fur on their body have special features to lose heat out of the body, like large ears.
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