The respiration process consists of the transportation of air in and out of the lungs and gas exchange in the lungs by alveoli, transport of O2 and CO2 in and out of the body. These processes are accomplished by the performance of respiratory organs and the circulatory system by working together. The respiratory process is controlled by the respiratory center that coordinates the process of inspiration and expiration. This respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata, and pons. This center is well connected to the respiratory organs by several nerve fibers. Rhythmic breathing is controlled by the pneumotaxic center in the pons varoli. Injuries to the respiratory center cause various breathing disorders and difficulty in breathing. This results in mechanical ventilation. The respiratory system consists of organs â€“ lungs, nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi, alveoli, and larynx.
This respiratory center is located in the brain stem where the medulla oblongata and pons varolli meet. There are 3 major respiratory groups in the respiratory center, one group is present in the pons and two groups are present in the medulla oblongata. The respiratory groups present in medulla are called as dorsal respiratory group and the ventral respiratory group that are controlled by rhythmic respiration. The pontine respiratory group is the single respiratory group in the pons with two areas of pneumotaxic center (present in the upper part of the pons), which controls the rate and pattern of breathing and the other area is apneustic center (antagonist of pneumotoxic center) that controls inhalation. The dorsal respiratory group controls the process of inhalation of air or inspiration. The sensory information is provided by two cranial nerves, namely, vagus nerve and glossopharyngeal nerve. The respiratory group controls the process of exhalation of air or expiration. It has four groups of neurons.
Breathing is the rhythmic process of inhalation (lungs bring the air mixture into the body ) and exhalation (taking away the metabolic wastes). This process is continued even when one is sleeping. Thus, it must be an automated system. This process is accomplished by the autonomic nervous system. There are three processes in respiration, namely, inspiration, passive, and active respiration. Several respiratory cycles in a minute are called respiratory rate, which is maintained by the dorsal respiratory group. Inspiration is an active process where expiration is a passive process. When the requirement of metabolic oxygen is more, there is a forceful inspiration. Inhalation requires the activity of the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles.
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