Along with the adequate intake of food rich in nutrients and minerals, proper digestion is also necessary to meet the daily energy demands. Digestion starts from the mouth by cutting down the food particles into small pieces by chewing. Later, the food particles enters the esophagus. Furthermore, the lower esophageal sphincter muscle contraction leads the food to the stomach, where partial digestion occurs. Then food mixture enters into the small intestine for the actual digestion to take place. Then it reaches the large intestine and digestion continues, and reabsorption takes place. Finally, the waste products formed after the successful digestion reach the rectum and wait for sometimes to get expelled through the anus.
The large intestine is also known as the colon and large bowl. The remaining digestive system processes take roughly 15 hours to complete in the large intestine. In this digestion process, the breaking down of food no longer takes place. Absorption is the prime process that occurs in the large intestine. It absorbs water, minerals, and nutrients.
Moreover, the large intestine converts the remaining waste products after digestion into the stool. Later, they are expelled through bowel movements. Vitamin B12, thiamine, and riboflavin are all vitamins produced by colonic bacteria, and the colon absorbs them. It also tights the feces and settles it in the rectum till defecation is possible.
Gut flora is the microorganisms living in the digestive tract and is the primary pool of human flora. The intestines carry ten times as many bacteria as the human body, with around 10 trillion cells. The metabolic processes of these microbes are similar to the organ, prompting some to compare gut microbes to an underappreciated organ. However, it also estimates that gut flora has a hundred times the number of genes in humans. Bacteria are the chief member of microflora in the large intestine. The common bacteria found in the gut flora are Lactobacillus and Escherichia coli,
According to research, commensalism and mutualism are the two significant interactions betwixt flora in the gut region and humans. Microflora in the gut perform various essential tasks. They conduct fermentation of unutilized energy molecules, boost immunity, inhibit the development of harmful disease-causing bacteria, and control the development of the gut. It also generates vitamins and hormones for the host.
The human body could not utilize part of the unprocessed carbohydrates it consumes if it did not have gut flora. Several species of gut flora break down specific polysaccharides using certain enzymes. Humans do not possess those enzymes to digest the substrates.
Carbohydrate sources that require bacterial help for digestion are starch, fiber, oligosaccharides, mucus secreted by the intestines, and various proteins. Saccharolytic fermentation is a type of fermentation in which bacteria convert carbohydrates into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). It exploits as a primary source of valuable energy and nutrients for people. Gut flora helps in the absorption of calcium, magnesium, iron, and vitamin K.
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