D EBA T E Open Access
Direct marketing in health and medicine:
using direct mail, email marketing, and
related communicative methods to engage
James K. Elrod1 and John L. Fortenberry Jr.1,2*
Background: Direct marketingâ€”the delivery of messages via mail, the Internet, and similar routes directly to
consumersâ€”is used extensively by healthcare organizations to attract and inform current and prospective patients
of health and medical offerings and opportunities. Examples of direct marketing include direct-mail marketing,
telemarketing, and Internet marketing, with routes being selected on the basis of their ability to reach desired
audiences. The various avenues offered by direct marketing afford options to address most any sought group.
Discussion: Direct marketing is one of the most recognized forms of marketing communication, thanks in large
part to its widespread use and direct engagement of consumers. While some applications clearly have the potential
to irritate consumers (e.g., junk mail in post boxes, spam in email inboxes), direct marketing can be deployed in
manners respectful of recipients and, in such cases, it can prove to be a helpful communications asset. To aid
others in understanding this particular conveyance method, this article presents an overview of direct marketing
and shares deployment insights and experiences from Willis-Knighton Health System.
Conclusions: Direct marketing provides a useful communications pathway, permitting health and medical
institutions to educate and enlighten desired audiences. Given instances of overuse and misuse by organizations,
however, great care must be taken to design and deploy direct marketing initiatives inoffensively. If well
designed and respectfully implemented, direct marketing affords significant communications utility, earning a
valued place in the marketing communications arsenals of healthcare establishments.
Keywords: Direct marketing, Marketing communications, Promotion, Hospitals, Healthcare
Â© The Author(s). 2020 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License,
which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give
appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if
changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons
licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons
licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain
permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the
data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
* Correspondence: [email protected] 1
Willis-Knighton Health System, 2600 Greenwood Road, Shreveport, LA
LSU Shreveport, 1 University Place, Shreveport, LA 71115, USA
Elrod and Fortenberry BMC Health Services Research 2020, 20(Suppl 1):822
Patient acquisition and retention activities constitute some
of the most important tasks conducted by health and
medical establishments [1â€“6]. Without consistent and,
ideally, growing patient volume, institutional viability
becomes uncertain, potentially threatening the very
existence of given medical providers and, in turn, the
livelihoods of their employees and the health status of the
people they serve [1, 7â€“9]. Seen in this light, inabilities to
attract and retain patients carry consequences well beyond
the walls of given healthcare establishments, extending
deeply into markets and even impacting community
health [10, 11]. This fact, of course, provides significant
motivation, compelling many healthcare providers to
direct intensive efforts toward ensuring that ongoing
streams of patients are secured, fostering viability that
affords mutual benefits [1, 7].
In pursuing viable patient streams, communication
proficiencies are essential, affording health and medical
establishments with the ability to engage, inform, and
attract current and prospective customers. Ultimately,
this yields all-important patient volume and institutional
market share [3, 5, 12, 13]. Pathways abound for reaching desired audiences, with one in particular, known as
direct marketing, effectively delivering messages from
given healthcare institutions directly to sought audiences, typically via mail, telephone, or Internet communications tools [1, 7]. Direct marketing is heavily utilized
by health services organizations, with applications
ranging from postcards mailed to prospects which introduce newly available medical technologies to emails
which invite recipients to attend the open houses of
given healthcare establishments [1, 5â€“8].
Direct marketing is one of the most recognized forms
of marketing communication, thanks in large part to its
widespread use and direct engagement of consumers.
While some applications clearly have the potential to
irritate consumers (e.g., junk mail in post boxes, spam in
email inboxes), direct marketing can be deployed in
manners respectful of recipients and, in such cases, it
can prove to be a helpful communications asset [14â€“16].
To aid others in understanding this particular conveyance method, this article presents an overview of direct
marketing and shares deployment insights and experiences from Willis-Knighton Health System.
Definition and overview
Direct marketing is one of many elements constituting
the broad discipline of marketing, formally defined as â€œa
management process that involves the assessment of
customer wants and needs, and the performance of all
activities associated with the development, pricing,
provision, and promotion of product solutions that
satisfy those wants and needsâ€ , p. 288. Promotion, as
evidenced in this definition, is a core feature of marketing,
earning inclusion as one of the Ps in the classic expression
known as the four Ps of marketing (i.e., Product, Price,
Place, Promotion). The promotion aspect of marketing
essentially entails any and all elements associated with
engaging audiences, with the core pathways for engagement being depicted in a descriptive model known as the
marketing communications (or promotions) mix [1, 17].
Classically illustrated, the marketing communications
mix contains five principal avenues of communication;
namely, advertising (i.e., the paid use of mass media to
deliver messages), personal selling (i.e., the use of sales
agents to personally deliver messages), sales promotion
(i.e., the use of incentives, such as contests and free
giveaways, to encourage patronage), public relations (i.e.,
the use of publicity and other unpaid promotional
methods to deliver messages), and direct marketing (i.e.,
the delivery of messages via mail, the Internet, and
similar routes directly to consumers) [1, 7]. Healthcare
providers examine each of these communicative avenues,
selecting one or more believed to be most capable of
reaching target audiences, with the ultimate goal being
to encourage patronage or compel some other desired
action [1, 9].
Direct marketing is characterized by its conveyance of
information directly to individuals. Unlike advertising,
which uses mass media to deliver messages to broad
audiences en masse, hoping to entice interested parties
into some form of desired exchange, direct marketing
engages individuals directly by sending, for example, a
promotional brochure, email message, or similar conveyance straight to the intended recipient. It is a highly
targeted form of communication and, as such, is highly
measurable, as responses to various solicitations can be
tracked with relative ease [14â€“16, 18]. Historically, direct
marketing often brought to mind telemarketing or direct
mail, but times have changed. Today, telemarketing has
been deemed by society to be so undesirable that its use
is now highly regulated, diminishing opportunities and
associated presence considerably. Even though direct
mail often is characterized by recipients as junk mail, it
continues to be used quite heavily, although shifts to
electronic forms of communication have diminished its
popularity. The Internet indeed has ushered in numerous direct marketing opportunities, ranging from email
appeals to newsletter distribution to social media engagements. This particular avenue is evolving rapidly
and almost certainly represents the future of direct
marketing methods [1, 14, 16].
One of the most critical tasks associated with direct
marketing pertains to building lists of prospects who will
be targeted with associated solicitations [5, 14, 15].
Prospect lists often are purchased from vendors who
specialize in the provision of such, permitting healthcare
Elrod and Fortenberry BMC Health Services Research 2020, 20(Suppl 1):822 Page 2 of 7
establishments to designate recipient characteristics (e.g.,
ZIP code, gender, age, interests, etc.) and request lists of
candidates meeting associated criteria. Although more
labor intensive, health and medical institutions can opt
instead to build their own lists. Assembling these lists
typically begins by asking current customers if they
would like to receive collateral, such as monthly newsletters, invitations to special events, promotional messages
detailing new healthcare options, and so on, adding
those desirous of such to a direct marketing database.
Invitations to join mailing lists, subscribe to social media
news conveyances, and the like also can be inserted into
other marketing communications, with those opting in
being added to associated direct marketing repositories.
With concerted efforts over time, custom lists will grow
and become true institutional assets, typically exceeding
the value derived from their more generic, purchased
counterparts [5, 7, 14â€“21].
How lists are used arguably is just as important as
quality of given lists. Simply collecting contact details
and sending solicitations whenever healthcare institutions please is decidedly poor form and likely will engender the animosity of recipients. This practice historically
has been used by many organizations and unfortunately
continues to this day, perpetuating negative feelings regarding direct marketing [5, 7, 14â€“21]. Such animosity
can be reduced or eliminated entirely by practicing what
is known as permission marketing, requiring that institutions request and be granted permission before forwarding solicitations to intended recipients and, for those
granting permission, offering easy methods to opt out of
future solicitations [16, 22].
Delivery without permission to do so can damage institutional reputations and lead to senders being labeled
â€œjunk mailers,â€ â€œspammers,â€ and the like for directing
unsolicited and often unwanted correspondence to individuals. As tempting as it might be to send promotional
messages without an invitation, it should be avoided, as
the main aim of healthcare communications rests with
establishing a productive dialogue, a mission immediately destroyed by intruding on the personal space of
audiences [5â€“7, 14â€“22]. Of course, beyond the assembly
of lists and their proper use, the information contained
in direct marketing pieces must have value to recipients.
If healthcare providers develop direct marketing programs that fulfill these mandates, they can expect good
things from their associated programs.
Institutional background, deployment history,
and context within marketing communications
From its earliest of days, dating back to 1924, WillisKnighton Health System has emphasized communications
excellence, something which in present times remains a
strategic priority, compelling extensive communicative
experimentation and innovation. Headquartered in
Shreveport, Louisiana and situated in the heart of an
area known as the Ark-La-Tex where the states of
Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas converge, Willis-Knighton
Health System holds market leadership in its served region
where it delivers comprehensive health and wellness
services through multiple hospitals, numerous general and
specialty medical clinics, an all-inclusive retirement
community, and more. The institutionâ€™s achievement of
market leadership is attributed, in part, to communications
prowess, permitting Willis-Knighton Health System to
effectively engage current and prospective patients, evoking
interest and attention, ultimately leading to burgeoning
patient volume and customer loyalty.
Today, Willis-Knighton Health System leverages the
power of the full marketing communications mix, deploying all of its components, including direct marketing. The
establishmentâ€™s use of direct marketing has been fairly
consistent over its history, best characterized as a modest
deployment, primarily used to complement other forms of
marketing communication. Its use in this manner stems
simply from Willis-Knighton Health Systemâ€™s preferences
for other forms of marketing communication which, based
on the institutionâ€™s experiences, are more effective at
achieving its designated communications goals. For direct
marketingâ€™s part, associated applications deployed by
Willis-Knighton Health System have evolved as the particular medium of communication and consumer preferences
have advanced over time.
Of major forms of direct marketing, telemarketing,
which entails contacting desired audiences via telephone,
historically has been used sparingly by Willis-Knighton
Health System due to the practiceâ€™s disruptive nature. In
recent decades, direct mail, which entails sending solicitations via post, has accounted for the majority of direct
marketing deployments by the institution, with the typical
application being in the form of postcards introducing
new physicians, communicating new services, and so on
to inform and enlighten recipients, as demonstrated by
the example presented in Fig. 1. Willis-Knighton Health
Systemâ€™s most prominent direct mail effort is the institutionâ€™s healthy lifestyles magazine known as Vim & Vigor
. This magazine features a variety of health and
wellness stories, along with helpful details about WillisKnighton Health System and its associated services. Vim
& Vigor is mailed to individuals and institutions throughout the Ark-La-Tex region and serves as a helpful vehicle
for building and maintaining awareness.
Postal distribution of Vim & Vigor is complemented by
electronic distribution via Willis-Knighton Health Systemâ€™s
website, with recent issues being viewable at the following
link: https://www.wkhs.com/about/vim-vigor. This move
was inspired by very clear trends which indicate increasing
use of and preferences for Internet-based communications
Elrod and Fortenberry BMC Health Services Research 2020, 20(Suppl 1):822 Page 3 of 7
by consumers. This particular avenue of communication is
capturing an expanding share of the institutionâ€™s direct
marketing dollar as paper-based and posted methods fall
out of favor as Internet communications continue to
develop and proliferate . In keeping with this trend,
Willis-Knighton Health System has directed more attention
toward electronically-distributed direct marketing applications, with the most notable initiatives being email-directed
communications and subscriptions to social media platforms, following a permission marketing protocol.
Although occupying a relatively small portion of WillisKnighton Health Systemâ€™s overall marketing communications budget, direct marketing is fulfilling its designated
purpose, complementing other marketing communications
deployed by the institution. The medium, of course, is capable of more robust deployments, with the method and
manner of given applications being determined based on
the wants and needs of particular establishments. Regardless of approach and intensity, care must be taken to ensure
that deployments are respectful of recipients, something
that is essential in order for direct marketing to fulfill its
intended purpose of informing and enlightening recipients.
Willis-Knighton Health Systemâ€™s observations from its
direct marketing experiences suggest a number of
strengths, compelling the avenueâ€™s inclusion in the institutionâ€™s marketing communications mix composition. Chief
strengths of direct marketing are described as follows.
Ability to be precisely targeted
As suggested by its name, direct marketing is forwarded
directly to individual recipients, affording precise targeting which permits personalization and minimizes wasted
circulation [5, 6, 14â€“21]. Something as simple as
addressing a parcel using a personâ€™s actual name, as opposed to â€œResidentâ€ or something equally nondescript,
can improve the chances that the parcel will be noticed.
This is all the more the case for more robust forms of
customization, such as inserts which reference the
Fig. 1 A postcard promoting Willis-Knighton Health Systemâ€™s Quick Care Urgent Care Center
Elrod and Fortenberry BMC Health Services Research 2020, 20(Suppl 1):822 Page 4 of 7
recipient by name, and, with permission marketing
elements in place, forwarding information for which the
individual has already expressed an interest in receiving.
Without such customization, direct marketing applications are more likely to be disregarded, constituting
circulation which delivers no value. Since the goal of
direct marketing is to engage, the investment required to
compel someone to actually look at pieces received
makes perfect sense. Doing the opposite and deciding to
simply send generic parcels will foster inattentiveness
and yield a diminished return on investment. As such,
healthcare institutions engaged in direct marketing
should take advantage of the communicative methodâ€™s
precision targeting capability and customize conveyances, accordingly.
Highly measurable performance
Unlike many forms of marketing communication, direct
marketing happens to be highly measurable, something
enhanced further by particular creative applications,
permitting establishments to better determine return on
investment [14â€“21]. Direct mail pieces, for example, can
feature a particular telephone number in the given message, providing reasonable assurances that calls directed
to that number were generated by the noted direct mail
campaign. A newsletter distributed to recipients which
conveys a special offer that is only promoted in the given
communication provides similar opportunities to ascertain
impact by tying results to the particular direct marketing
campaign. Direct marketing applications placed via the
Internet permit a wealth of tracking opportunities through
such things as the inclusion of web links tied to given
campaigns, the ability to access data analytics details,
including recipient click behaviors, and more, giving perhaps the greatest utility for assessing campaign results.
Such measurability aids in shaping and honing approaches
by reviewing experiences of prior campaigns, making
adjustments as needed for improvements in future
campaigns. This also is most helpful in determiningâ€”and
justifyingâ€”marketing communications budgets.
Potential to convey significant information
Direct marketing efforts have the potential to telegraph
significant amounts of information [5, 6, 14â€“21].
Whereas a 30-second television commercial can only
effectively convey a limited amount of detail, direct
marketing, courtesy of its delivery methods, can feature
a wide range of information. This is especially helpful in
the health services industry where offerings typically are
highly complex, necessitating robust details in order for
consumers to make informed decisions. A direct mail
parcel posted to residents might, for example, contain a
multipage brochure, information booklet, or other form
of collateral, conveying extensive facts and figures which
can be consumed at the leisure of recipients. Internet
communications offer the same potential, including the
convenience of featuring helpful web links which can be
directly accessed by the recipients of given communications. This particular attribute actually works quite well
for reinforcing other forms of marketing communication, with advertising building top-of-mind awareness
for, say, a given medical procedure, and a complementary
direct marketing campaign delivering enhanced information to bolster awareness of the given innovation, yielding
effective marketing communications synergies.
Motivations to use direct marketing are counterbalanced
by a series of limitations which must be factored into applications so as to minimize or avoid associated effects.
Notable limitations are described as follows.
Potential for intrusiveness
Direct marketing, courtesy of its direct engagement attribute, has the potential to intrude on the privacy of recipients, something which is magnified when organizations
carelessly and selfishly deploy the medium of communication [5, 6, 14â€“21]. Many have experienced, for example,
unrelenting telephone solicitations, junk mail cluttering
mailboxes and hampering oneâ€™s ability to locate meaningful parcels, and spam messages crowding email inboxes
and diminishing associated utility. Such nuisances have
harmed the reputation of direct marketing, necessitating
extreme care in its deployment. As described in prior sections, the potential for intrusiveness can be diminished or
eliminated entirely with the establishment of a protocol
which requires receipt of permission prior to forwarding
direct marketing communications to targets. Doing so
eliminates wasted circulation and ensures that direct
marketing efforts are not reputationally damaging by overstepping the boundaries of recipients.
Potential to be overlooked
The volume of direct marketing efforts forwarded to consumers generally is staggering, overwhelming recipients
who often will not take the time to separate meaningful
and relevant communications from the many which are
not. The end result of this proliferation is consumer inattentiveness to direct marketing appeals [5, 14â€“21]. This,
of course, makes it very difficult for institutions forwarding
targeted, relevant, and respectful direct marketing communications to break through the clutter to win the attention
of recipients. Stories of people visiting their mailboxes,
grabbing parcels, and disposing of junk mail without as
much as a second glance abound, as do accounts of individuals opening their email inboxes and deleting messages
en masse, not wishing to take the time to screen the sea of
solicitations often flooding their accounts. Breaking
Elrod and Fortenberry BMC Health Services Research 2020, 20(Suppl 1):822 Page 5 of 7
through the clutter is challenging for anyone engaged in
direct marketing, with perhaps the best method for doing
so being through the deployment of highly creative applications which capture attention. These, of course, must be
infused with communications which are relevant and delivered respectfully.
Database management challenges
As noted in prior sections of this article, the success of
direct marketing campaigns is heavily reliant on the
quality of the recipient list. Quality must extend beyond
correct contact details, reaching into deeper things like
communication preferences (e.g., mail, telephone, email),
content desired (e.g., promotional messages from the
host organization, promotional messages from partner
organizations), relevance to the recipient (e.g., sports
medicine services for athletically-inclined individuals,
senior-related health services for senior citizens), and
the like. These details must be managed properly and
updated in a timely fashion, with this exercise representing a significant challenge [5, 14â€“21, 24]. Proper
database management also is essential for ensuring that
direct marketing permissions, which can and do change
often, are accurate. Those opting in or opting out must
be registered as such immediately as part of prudent
efforts to ensure that audiences are addressed as they
desire. Resources obviously are required for database
management endeavors, ranging from information systems to personnel charged with overseeing and effecting
processes. Despite associated challenges, such investments have the potential to dramatically improve direct
For administering any component of the marketing
communications mix, Willis-Knighton Health System
advises establishing a baseline foundation of resources,
including (1) top leadership support and commitment,
(2) financial resources sufficient for funding communications activities, (3) competent personnel charged with
effecting given initiatives, and (4) formal processes
permitting effective planning, implementation, and
evaluation of initiatives. Adequate resources set the stage
for productive audience engagement endeavors, minimizing chances of resource-depleting and reputationdamaging mistakes which, in the realm of marketing
communications, often are very public, given the open
circulation of such conveyances. These resources also
ensure competencies in using given marketing communications mix components, with proper deployment
being essential for realizing desired outcomes.
Beyond the advisories conveyed elsewhere in this
article, Willis-Knighton Health System suggests that
health and medical establishments considering the use
of direct marketing make certain that they carefully
consider the total costs of the particular applications
under examination. Minimally, healthcare entities will
need to consider the costs associated with (1) development of creative content, (2) production of associated
collateral, such as printing in the case of direct mail, (3)
purchasing or building a recipient list, including database management expenses, (4) distribution feesâ€”such
as postage in the case of direct mailâ€”associated with
forwarding direct marketing communications to recipients, and (5) labor costs associated with effecting given
campaigns. Once expenditures are tallied, healthcare
providers then are positioned to compare the costs of the
proposed direct marketing campaign with the costs of
other forms of marketing communication, providing a
useful evaluative measure for marketing communications
planning. Such examinations aid in ensuring that total
costs are considered whenever contemplating direct
marketing campaigns, permitting health and medical organizations helpful assistance in determining the most prudent
avenues available for achieving designated communicative
Direct marketing provides a useful communications pathway, allowing health and medical institutions to educate
and enlighten desired audiences. This sets the stage for
acquiring patronage and resulting market share, yielding
numerous mutual benefits for given establishments and
their communities. As with all forms of marketing communication, care must be taken to deploy direct marketing
properly, capitalizing on its strengths while avoiding applications that evoke its limitations. Database assembly and
management activities are particularly critical and a
permission marketing mindset is imperative for achieving
the best results. Further, given instances of overuse and
misuse by organizations, great care must be taken to design and deploy direct marketing initiatives inoffensively.
If well designed and respectfully implemented, direct marketing affords significant communications utility, earning
a valued place in the marketing communications arsenals
of health and medical organizations.
A special note of thanks is extended to Marilyn Joiner and the greater WillisKnighton Health System family for their helpful assistance throughout the
development and publication of this article.
About this supplement
This article has been published as part of BMC Health Services Research
Volume 20 Supplement 1, 2020: Marketing communications in health and
medicine: perspectives from Willis-Knighton Health System. The full contents
of the supplement are available online at http://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/supplements/volume-20-supplement-1.
The authors jointly developed the submitted manuscript, with each
performing critical roles from early conceptualization through to the
Elrod and Fortenberry BMC Health Services Research 2020, 20(Suppl 1):822 Page 6 of 7
production of the full manuscript. The manuscript resulted from a
collaborative effort. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
JKE is President and Chief Executive Officer of Shreveport, Louisiana-based
Willis-Knighton Health System, the regionâ€™s largest provider of healthcare
services. With over 55 years of service at the helm of the institution, JKE is
Americaâ€™s longest-tenured hospital administrator. A fellow in the American
College of Healthcare Executives and honoree as a Louisiana Legend by
Friends of Louisiana Public Broadcasting, he holds a bachelorâ€™s degree in
business administration from Baylor University, a masterâ€™s degree in hospital
administration from Washington University School of Medicine, and an
honorary doctorate of science and humane letters from Northwestern State
University of Louisiana. He is the author of Breadcrumbs to Cheesecake, a
book which chronicles the history of Willis-Knighton Health System.
JLF Jr. is Chair of the James K. Elrod Department of Health Administration,
James K. Elrod Professor of Health Administration, and Professor of Marketing
in the College of Business at LSU Shreveport where he teaches a variety of
courses in both health administration and marketing. He holds a BBA in
marketing from the University of Mississippi; an MBA from Mississippi
College; a PhD in public administration and public policy, with
concentrations in health administration, human resource management, and
organization theory, from Auburn University; and a PhD in business
administration, with a major in marketing, from the University of Manchester
in the United Kingdom. He is the author of six books, including Health Care
Marketing: Tools and Techniques, 3rd Edition, published by Jones and Bartlett
Learning. JLF Jr. also serves as Vice President of Marketing Strategy and
Planning at Willis-Knighton Health System.
Article processing charges were funded by Willis-Knighton Health System.
Availability of data and materials
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Consent for publication
Figure 1 is published with permission of Willis-Knighton Health System. All
required approvals for publication were obtained.
JKE and JLF Jr. are both employed with Willis-Knighton Health System.
Published: 15 September 2020
1. Fortenberry JL Jr. Health care marketing: tools and techniques. 3rd ed.
Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett; 2010.
2. Feinberg D. Why advertise â€¦ and why not? Mark Health Serv. 2011;31(2):3â€“5.
3. Elrod JK, Fortenberry JL Jr. Formulating productive marketing
communications strategy: a major health systemâ€™s experience. BMC Health
Serv Res. 2018;18(Suppl 3):926.
4. Elrod JK, Fortenberry JL Jr. Billboard advertising: an avenue for
communicating healthcare information and opportunities to disadvantaged
populations. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(Suppl 4):787.
5. Berkowitz E. Essentials of health care marketing. 4th ed. Burlington: Jones
and Bartlett; 2017.
6. Thomas RK. Marketing health services. 3rd ed. Chicago: Health
Administration Press; 2014.
7. Fortenberry JL Jr. Cases in health care marketing. Sudbury: Jones and
8. Kotler P, Shalowitz J, Stevens RJ. Strategic marketing for health care
organizations: building a customer-driven health system. San Francisco:
9. Fortenberry JL Jr. Nonprofit marketing. Burlington: Jones and Bartlett; 2013.
10. Schiavo R. Health communication: from theory to practice. 2nd ed. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2014.
11. Parvanta CF, Nelson DE, Harner RN. Public health communication: critical
tools and strategies. Burlington: Jones and Bartlett; 2018.
12. Elrod JK, Fortenberry JL Jr. Healthcare establishments as owner-operators of
digital billboards: making the most of excellent roadside visibility and high
traffic counts to better connect with patients. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018;
13. Elrod JK, Fortenberry JL Jr. Driving brand equity in health services
organizations: the need for an expanded view of branding. BMC Health
Serv Res. 2018;18(Suppl 3):924.
14. Nash E. Direct marketing: strategy, planning, execution. 4th ed. New York:
15. Stone B, Jacobs R. Successful direct marketing methods: interactive,
database, and customer marketing for the multichannel communications
age. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2008.
16. Kotler P, Keller KL. Marketing management. 14th ed. Upper Saddle River:
Prentice Hall; 2012.
17. Elrod JK, Fortenberry JL Jr. Catalyzing marketing innovation and competitive
advantage in the healthcare industry: the value of thinking like an outsider.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2018;18(Suppl 3):922.
18. Perreault WD Jr, Cannon JP, McCarthy EJ. Basic marketing: a marketing
strategy planning approach. 19th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2014.
19. Belch GE, Belch MA. Advertising and promotion: an integrated marketing
communications perspective. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2018.
20. Andrews JC, Shimp TA. Advertising, promotion, and other aspects of
integrated marketing communications. 10th ed. Boston: Cengage; 2018.
21. Oâ€™Guinn TC, Allen CT, Scheinbaum AC, Semenik RJ. Advertising and
integrated brand promotion. 8th ed. Boston: Cengage; 2019.
22. Godin S. Permission marketing: Turning strangers into friends and friends
into customers. London: Simon and Schuster; 1999.
23. Elrod JK. Breadcrumbs to cheesecake. Shreveport: R&R Publishers; 2013.
24. Tapp A, Whitten I, Housden M. Principles of direct, database, and digital
marketing. 5th ed. London: Pearson; 2013.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in
published maps and institutional affiliations.
Elrod and Fortenberry BMC Health Services Research 2020, 20(Suppl 1):822 Page 7 of 7
BioMed Central publishes under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL). Under
the CCAL, authors retain copyright to the article but users are allowed to download, reprint,
distribute and /or copy articles in BioMed Central journals, as long as the original work is
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more