Angiosperms are the flowering plants that exhibit gametophytic and sporophytic generation in their life cycle. During the gametophytic generation, a specialized mother cell in the sporophyte produces haploid spores during the meiotic cell division. The haploid spores further proliferate and differentiate into multicellular gametophytes. These multicellular gametes give rise to individual male gametes called the sperm if the mother cell is a microspore, and the female gamete called the egg if the mother cell is a megaspore. The sperm fertilizes the egg and produce a zygote, which further undergoes development to produce sporophytes. Angiosperms are heterosporous which means they produce two types of unisexual gametophytes such as the male and the female gametophytes. The female mother cell, megaspore undergoes megasporogenesis to produce haploid megaspore. The haploid megaspore during megagametogenesis forms seven celled and eight nucleated female gametophytes, which gets embedded in the female sexual organ of the plant. The female reproductive system is composed of the stigma, style, and ovary. In some cases, the plants contain both the male and female gametophytes.
The overall structure of the female gametophyte:
The female gametophyte is a seven celled and eight nucleated structure, which contains one central cell, one egg cell, two synergid cells, and three antipodal cells. The central cell is formed by the fusion of two identical haploid nuclei, while all the other cells inherited one nucleus.
The egg and the central cell are always found close to each other, due to their polarized nuclei and their double fertilization nature.
The plasma membrane of the egg, synergid, and central cell exhibits direct contact with each other due to the absence or discontinuous cell wall around them which makes fertilization easy for the sperm cells.
Synergid that is located towards the micropylar pole contains a filiform structure, which is composed of secretory organelles that transport and signal pollen tubes.
The antipodal cells exhibit finger-like cell wall projections, which transport substances from the ovary surroundings to the ovule cells.
Double fertilization occurs on the egg cell, where one haploid sperm of the male gametophyte fuses with one haploid egg cell and forms a diploid zygote, while another haploid sperm fuses with the central cell with two polar nuclei to form a triploid cell that matures into an endosperm that protects the zygote.
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