Studying personality studies involves psychoanalytical, cognitive, humanistic, or trait approaches. Trait theories are used to study the concept of individual differences. There are studies like the Big five, Five-factor model, PEN model, Tellengenâ€™s model. All these involve extraversion and neuroticism traits in some forms and are thus used widely in behavioral genetics studies. The conclusion from these studies suggests that personality is substantially heritable, several studies for this show variation in the extent of this study by this variation is predicted due to non-additive genetic effect because family and adoption design estimate is only narrow-sense heritability. And this might also be due to the design of the family/adoption study. The environmental effects or influence of these studies is non-shared between family members. The result of the study is that all behavioral traits are heritable, a small portion of the variance is not accounted for by the effect of family environment genes and finally, the effect of family environment effect is smaller than the effects of genes. The family resemblance of personality can be studied using meta-analysis studies. The study aimed to find a correlation between identical twins reared together and reared apart, fraternal twins reared together and reared apart, mother and child, and final between father and child. Estimates of average correlation and weighted average correlation were done with 95% confidence intervals.
Findings of researches on personality:
Results of the meta-analyses concluded the statistical significance in average correlation coefficient with none of the confidence intervals including zero. The intraclass for monozygotic twins is larger than that of dizygotic twins indicating the genetic effect in individual differences in personality while the intraclass correlation of twin pairs raised together and apart are similar indicating that the family environment does not contribute to similarity. The intraclass correlations for monozygotic twins either raised together or reared apart are almost twice that for dizygotic twin pairs indicating that nonadditive genetic effects also play role in addition to additive genetic effects. The findings of molecular genetic studies revealed that individual differences in personality are occurred not just by genetic contribution and often difficult to recreate. This study led to the formulation of the missing heritability problem which states that a single genetic variation accounting for much of that heritability. Epistatic interaction between genes is done. The study involves a genetic variation that is expressed conditionally as a function of an environmental factor of some and not all individuals. Results of these studies involved mixed results.
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