Every organism has a unique genetic makeup that is determined by its genetic material, which is deoxyribonucleic acid. In the genome of an organism, there are huge varieties of genes that provide them the ability to survive in the existing environmental condition. Genetic diversity refers to the variety or diversity of genes between the animals within a species. This diversity in the genetic architecture of an organism arises during the process of sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction leads to genetic diversity because the egg and sperm that are produced during the reproductive phase of an organism have different genetic combinations than the parent organisms. In the case of asexual reproduction, there is no need for sperm and eggs since the parent organism itself splits into two daughter organisms having the same combination of genes. In sexual reproduction, there is the involvement of meiotic cell division, during which a single diploid germ cell divides twice to give rise to four haploid gametes. During meiosis, there is an extensive shuffling of the original genetic content derived from the parent germ cell, which takes place by the process of homologous recombination and crossing over. To form a new offspring, two gametes i.e. the sperm and egg undergo fusion resulting in more genetic diversity. In asexual reproduction, one organism divides into two daughter organisms without any shuffling of its genetic content, so the offspring has the same genetic architecture like that of the parent.
Chromosomal crossing over is the first process by which shuffling of genes takes place in sexual reproduction resulting in genetic diversity.
Chromosomal crossing over is a very important phase during meiosis.
It takes place during the pachytene stage of prophase I of meiosis during synapsis.
During this process, the exchange of genetic material (DNA) between the non-sister chromatids of two homologous chromosomes leads to the formation of recombinant chromosomes.
Homologous chromosomes from both the parents possess the same genes in the same loci; hence, they only pair with each other. Each of these homologous chromosomes has either the same genes or slightly different forms of the same gene. They align themselves side-by-side during synapsis, break off pieces of themselves, and exchange those broken pieces with each other.
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