Research Literature Synthesis



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Professors Comments

Your synthesis was very good. You have also identified a preliminary research gap. As you refine your problem, purpose and research questions, you will refine how you investigate the research gap.

Please read my comments all the way to the Reference page.

Keep researching and keep synthesizing. This was an initial synthesis and if you did this with another 40-50 articles, then that would be another 12-16 pages added on to your Chapter 2 Literature Review.

Be encouraged and keep up the great work!










Research Literature Synthesis

Globalization has changed international and local companies and organizations’ management cultures, and practices. This transformation is due to technological innovations in the global community. Management is adopting new cultures and methods which are fully integrated and changing the modern community society. The approach of modern society is implementing and increasing the importance of society-based services. It is an effort focused on social transformation, while improving social foundations of a community. The adoption of social media and technologically based management practices is changing and increasing social changes and varieties of the modern community. Leadership is changing based on the importance of local practices, and international multicultural organizations. The performance of global leadership practices is also changing rapidly with the rise of information technology in the contemporary community. The impact of technology for adopting new social media uses in the modern community, and especially in management is changing the field of leadership and organizational performance. The approach of leaders on implementing the use of social media for business functions is changing the dependency from the traditional management systems to modern virtual based systems.

Common Findings Comment by admin: Excellent scholarly tone with your writing. Continue to cite your sources and give credit to where credit is due.

According to Aleksić, Mihelič, Černe & Škerlavaj (2017), leader-member followership assists in the purpose of different work-related inputs. The performance of employees based on a leader-member relationship improves and supports operational performance. The approach for leadership only impacts the followers, and this is the importance for integrating a given approach in the field of leadership. Breevaart, Bakker, Demerouti & van den Heuvel (2015), supports the inputs of a leader member relationship. The approach is an increase on communication, and how to fully improve on relational performance, terms, and work performance. There is the need and nature for increasing the social differences for leadership, and operational performance. Research conducted by Dusterhoff, Cunningham & MacGregor (2014), supports the theoretical framework of employee performance and satisfaction based on leadership strategies. It is a common process for indicating and supporting the vital processes of a single performance indicator based on how leadership is conducted. The leader-member relationship fosters growth and performance. Hu & Judge (2017) speaks about the importance of possessing good and motivating traits for all people in leadership positions. It is a process that embarks on leadership and is based on employee work motivation and satisfaction. Leadership strategies foster performance and productive based resources and relations.

There is the need and importance for change, according to Humberd & Rouse (2016), relations between leaders and followers is closely based on the nature and means of association. Close communication, and leadership traits impacts the formation of these relations from a pictorial position. It helps to increase and communicate changes in leadership and management. Murphy (2005) supports coaching and mentorship as a process that builds productive relationships, which is a growing mark between leadership and operational effectiveness. The approach of a leader is a process influenced by transition from positive leadership to overall performance. According to Susing and Cavanagh (2013), personal traits are an important indicator for achieving coaching success as a mentor or attaining leader-member performance. It is the approach for success which helps to improve and support operational performance. It evaluates, develops, and improves relational performance which meets organizational development.

According to Besser, Flett, Hewitt & Guez (2008), the results of the assessments indicate a productive relationship between different personalities. It is a process for engaging in different approaches, and methods of change. Niemann, Wisse, Rus, Van Yperen & Sassenberg (2014), also supports the idea of using feedback as a process for considering personal traits and differences. This approach focuses and assists with divisional labor, performance, and effective management. Vidyarthi, Erdogan, Anand, Liden & Chaudhry (2014), offers a clear and logical understanding about the changes in the differences among dual relationship, which arises due to different leadership changes. Employee differences are part and parcel of leadership processes and assist with improvement of effective performance.

Common Conclusions Comment by admin: Synthesis is when you persuade the reader that a gap exists and that the problem is supported by existing research. You need to have a lot of in-text citations supporting each of your assertions that define why your study is worth accepting as doctoral work and a new contribution to your field. You need to make strong statements that further your argument and at the end of that assertion is where the reader asks, “Says who?” After your statement comes a list of authors supporting this assertion. A list of authors after an assertion demonstrates synthesis in scholarly writing.

The research focuses on the importance of leadership in the global community, and the perspectives are drawn from the changes in society towards organizational development, and performance. There is the need of focusing on the changes in society, and focusing on transformational leadership, which focuses on performance and allocation of organizational performance. Leadership forms and stems from close relationships developed from personal, employee satisfaction, and the approaches used by leaders. Social media on the other hand, plays a vital role in engaging leadership, and especially in communication issues. It assists in focusing on the functions of a leader rather than focusing on changes, and manners of addressing organizational change.

Another common aspect about leadership is personality traits and relations, which impacts its foundational aspect. The approach is simple, because it helps to focus, develop, and improve organizational performance. The approach helps to influence, develop, and support operational performance and creative allocations such as embarking on the processes, changes, and divisional performance. Therefore, operational leadership is a process based on personality performance and operational approaches and goals.

Research Gap Comment by admin: Keep the statements directed to your study and support those assertions with experts in the field. You needed to cite a lot more sources in this paragraph.

There is a leadership approach based on the operational effectiveness of an organization. There is also the need for considering the changes in the community due to the rapid evolution of technology. This impacts the changes in the community and how to improve, change, and increase effective performance. The challenge is the evolution of technology in the modern community, and how the adoption of technology is changing leadership processes in the community. There is the need of focusing on increased and improved performance focusing on social and leadership changes. The research should focus on the evolution of the technology on leadership. New practices are emerging which impacts organizational leadership, performance, communication and decentralization of organizational leadership. The research gap which needs further research is on the impact of technology on leadership. Creating important aspect on leadership is a process for impacting, transforming and increasing operational effectiveness. There is a challenge for impacting, developing, and planning on social changes which helps to improve and generate necessary resources, such as organizational performance. Considering the growth and transition of research, it is a process for ensuring, planning, and increasing organizational performance.


In conclusion, the evolution of leadership in the modern community is changing and increasing the differences and approaches of management. Leadership varies based on the practices used and applied in the modern community. There is also leadership based on changes and objectives, relations and how effective the approach of leadership can help in supporting operational leadership and effectiveness. The focus on leadership in the digital era is transforming the dependency on virtual teams and local management over the use of social media. This transform and increases functional performance that focuses on the role played by different leadership strategies. It is also important to seek, develop, and improve the changes between effectiveness of leadership and relations formed through leader-membership in the modern community. The approaches of social media’s integration in modern leadership and management has increased the perspective through which leaders use technology and personal relations for management leadership in the community. Comment by admin: Finish with a strong argument about why your study is worth pursuing with a doctoral committee supporting you.












References Comment by admin: Good work on your reference page.

Aleksić, D., Mihelič, K. K., Černe, M., & Škerlavaj, M. (2017). Interactive effects of perceived time pressure, satisfaction with work-family balance (SWFB), and leader-member exchange (LMX) on creativity. Personnel Review46(3), 662-679

Breevaart, K., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & van den Heuvel, M. (2015). Leader-member exchange, work engagement, and job performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology30(7), 754-770

Dusterhoff, C., Cunningham, J. B., & MacGregor, J. N. (2014). The effects of performance rating, leader–member exchange, perceived utility, and organizational justice on performance appraisal satisfaction: Applying a moral judgment perspective. Journal of business ethics119(2), 265-273

Hu, J., & Judge, T. A. (2017). Leader–team complementarity: Exploring the interactive effects of leader personality traits and team power distance values on team processes and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology102(6), 935.

Humberd, B. K., & Rouse, E. D. (2016). Seeing you in me and me in you: Personal identification in the phases of mentoring relationships. Academy Of Management Review, 41(3)

Murphy, S. A. (2005). Recourse to executive coaching: the mediating role of human resources. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 7(3).

Susing, I., and Cavanagh, J. M. (2013). At the intersection of performance: Personality and adult development in coaching. International Coaching Psychology Review. 8(2)

Besser, A., Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., & Guez, J. (2008). Perfectionism, and cognitions, affect, self-esteem, and physiological reactions in a performance situation

Niemann, J., Wisse, B., Rus, D., Van Yperen, N. W. & Sassenberg, K. (2014). Anger and attitudinal reactions to negative feedback: The effects of emotional instability and power. Motivation and Emotion, 38(5)

Vidyarthi, P. R., Erdogan, B., Anand, S., Liden, R. C., & Chaudhry, A. (2014). One member, two leaders: Extending leader–member exchange theory to a dual leadership context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(3), 468-483.

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