Investigative Intelligence- Chapter 8 Lecture Notes
REVISITING THE CRIME FUNNEL
â€¢Â Important to note that the numbers flow downwards in the funnel, not upwards. In other words, a number is constrained to a maximum value of the number above it, so changing a number has impacts downwards, but not necessarily upwards. A topâ€down effect flow.
â€¢Â One problem with arresting much of the lowâ€hanging fruit of the criminal world has been the creation of a criminal elite who have avoided capture.
a. Estimating prevention benefits
â€¢Â Impacts higher up the crime funnel will have greater benefits throughout the whole criminal justice system.
â€¢Â Any reduction is actual crime will reduce reported crime, provide more opportunity to concentrate on prolific offenders, and allow the criminal justice system to concentrate on the most serious offenders.
REDUCTION, DISRUPTION AND PREVENTION
â€¢Â The distinction between crime reduction, disruption and prevention is rarely considered in operational strategies, however considering these components individually has the benefit of opening up more potential strategies.
â€¢Â Although few enforcement executives consider prevention, the three levels of crime prevention each provide opportunities for longâ€term crime prevention resulting directly from intelligenceâ€led policing related activities.
THE CHANGING LEADERSHIP ROLE
â€¢Â Many police executives were promoted under different policing paradigms, and have not had the opportunity for training in POP or intelligenceâ€led policing.
â€¢Â Workplaces have also changed. Rather than â€˜squadsâ€™, it is more common to form â€˜teamsâ€™. Less autocratic workplaces are much more common, even within the existing rank structure.
â€¢Â Some police department award promotion purely based on examination results, with little regard for the ability of the individual to be conversant with crime reduction knowledge or demonstrate leadership potential.
b. Steering the rowers in the right direction
â€¢Â Too many analysts attempt to influence the thinking of â€˜rowersâ€™ while they should try and identify the â€˜steerersâ€™ who can use resources to have an impact on the criminal environment.
â€¢Â While not the case with all prosecutors or district attorneys, too often in American jurisdictions the chief law enforcement officer has a legal background and no exposure to the potential benefits of disruption or prevention.
â€¢Â The legal training of chief law enforcement officers blinkers them to possibilities outside use of the criminal justice system.
THE POLICE IMPACT ON CRIME
a. Does police targeting prevent crime?
â€¢Â While the Kansas City Preventative Patrol Experiment has been criticized for methodological grounds, it was a pretty severe indictment of the idea that random patrol decreases crime significantly.
â€¢Â Studies suggest that while generally increasing numbers of police can help, it is more useful to considerÂ howÂ officers are deployed.
b. Does increasing arrests reduce crime?
â€¢Â Targeted arrests reduced crime in the state of New South Wales, Australia, but the increased incarceration did place additional pressures on the criminal justice system. It may not have been the most costâ€effective way to reduce crime.
c. Intelligenceâ€led crime reduction
â€¢Â The University of Maryland review has not been replicated since published in 1998, however the Campbell Collaboration conducts crime prevention related systemat
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more