The Federal Reserve cut interest rate (technically the federal funds rate at which banks can borrow from the Fed -Â the central bank of the United States) to zero in an emergency announcement on 3/15/2020 to deal with the financial markets turmoil caused by the COVID-19Â pandemic:
Two years later on 3/16/2022 the Fed raised interest rate by 0.25% for the first time since 2018 to combat spiraling inflation:
Federal Reserve approves first interest rate hike in more than three years, sees six more aheadThe Federal Reserve on Wednesday approved its first interest rate increase in more than three years, and said it expects to keep raising through the end of the year.Jeff CoxCNBC
The Fed continued to raise interest rates several times as inflation persisted, and is expected to hike rate further into next year:
Consequently the mortgage loan rates changed with the fed funds rate: the 30-year fixed rate mortgage average has increased to more than 7% following the Fed’s latest action. What are the impacts of interest rate changes on the monthly payments and the total interest charges over the loan life? You can conduct sensitivity analysis using the attached Mortgage Loan Amortization Schedule in Excel: i.e. change the APR from 6% to 5%, 4%, 3% or 7%, 8% etc. to see what a difference it will make to the monthly payments and total (interest) payments by even 1% change in mortgage rate. So mortgage rate is an important factor to consider when you try to finance a new purchase or refinance an outstanding loan.
there are two types ofÂ valuation ratios /Â (market)Â multiples:
equity multiplesÂ are on per share basis, such as P/E, P/S, P/B, P/E/G etc.;
entity multiplesÂ are on whole firm basis, such as EV/Sales, EV/EBITDA etc.
EV(enterprise value) = market value of total equity + market value of total debtÂ – cash
The common characteristic forÂ valuation ratios/(market) multiplesÂ is that the numerator is price or market value, which reflects investors’Â expectationÂ on the firm’s prospects. That distinguishes from otherÂ financial ratios/accounting ratiosÂ (such as liquidity ratios, debt management ratios, asset management ratios, profitability ratios etc.): both the numerator and denominator of the ratios are accounting numbers (book value) from the financial statements, which areÂ historicalÂ data describing what already happened in the past.
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