Hydrophobic is water-hating amino acid groups that mostly do not interact with the polar water molecule and exist in a non-polar amino acids form.
Hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur are the five atoms that are present in the variable R side chain group based on which the polar and non-polar nature of the amino acid is determined.
Aliphatic or aromatic reactive groups are present in the non-polar amino acids.
Aliphatic amino acids are glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, and proline. While the aromatic amino acids are phenylalanine and tryptophan.
The proteins are biopolymers that are made up of amino acid monomers. When proteins are exhibited in their three-dimensional form in an aqueous environment the water-hating hydrophobic non-polar side chain of the amino acids get embedded inside. While the hydrophilic amino acid which is water-loving are present on the surface of the proteins.
Hydrophilic polar amino acids:
Hydrophilic is water-loving amino acids that easily interact with the highly polar water molecules. These polar amino acids based on their charge are divided into three types: (i) polar acidic, (ii) polar basic, and (iii) polar neutral amino acids.
The presence of acids, amines, amides, and alcohols in the reactive group of the amino acids contributes to its polarity.
The polar amino acids usually exhibit a zwitterion form. Initially, the amino acids consist of one carboxylic acid group and one amino base group. However, the amine group pulls a hydrogen atom towards it due to its stronger bases. Now the amino acid exhibits a positive charge at one end and a negative charge at another end making a net neutral charge that exhibits a zwitterion composition in a physiological neutral pH.
Amino acids such as glutamic acid and aspartic acid are negatively charged and are termed as polar acidic. If the reactive group contains an amine group then the presence of two amino groups and one carboxylic group exhibits a negative charge
Polar basic or positively charged that consist of lysine histidine and arginine amino acids. In which the reactive group has an acid molecule, thus the presence of one amine group and two acid groups exhibits a positive basic charge.
Polar neutral charged due to the absence of an extra amine and carboxylic group. It consists of tyrosine, serine, threonine, cysteine, glutamine, and asparagine amino acids.
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