he sequence of events that takes place from the development of pioneer species to the climax species took hundreds or thousands of years. The seral or transitional communities are known as the communities that are developed in a series of ecological succession. The â€˜sereâ€™ refers to the whole sequence of the development of communities from pioneer to climax. The community which is first developed on barren land and which is never occupied by any species is called a pioneer community. It is formed by a group of pioneer species. The most common example of pioneer species is a lichen that develops on a mountain or land which is covered by rocks. They secrete some acids that melt the rocks and convert them into the soil. Gradually annual grasses grow on that soil and are followed by the perennial grasses. After that, shrubs and big trees grow and finally form a forest. The forest denotes the climax community. Biological succession in the dried environment such as deserts is called xerarch succession, and in the water bodies, it is called hydrarch succession. The events that take place in hydrarch succession are called hydrosere. The submerged plants act as pioneer communities in hydrarch succession and then the stages reed swamp; marsh meadow shrubs are developed in the water bodies such as in ponds.
Ecological succession in animals
The animals are affected by the ecological succession of plant species. The lichen, which is the pioneer community in the case of ecological succession in the plants, comprises of small insects such as a few of the ants, termites, and spider species. The further developmental stages of perennial and annual grasses lead to the development of more organisms such as the nematodes are also included with spiders and ants that can survive in such environmental conditions and vegetations. The forest which is the climax community of ecological succession of plants becomes a habitat for large animals and their diverse populations. The vertebrates and invertebrates can survive with the help of resources available in the climax community. The developmental stages that occur gradually with the plant succession affect the succession of animals as well. Similarly, in the aquatic ecosystem, the animals (zooplanktons) that survive by feeding upon submerged plants (phytoplankton) are the pioneer for ecological succession. The climax of community development in plant succession also affects the climax of community development in animal succession.
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