This stage stands until the cervix gets fully dilated. In this dilation stage is further divided into 2 phases. Latent phase and the active phase.
Explusion comes after the stage dilution. And this stage continues till the birth has completed.
This is the final stage. Removal of placenta results the uterus getting relaxation because the contraction is decreased. Lack of nutrients will may cause some complications during childbirth. As whole the most common complication during the childbirth is, Fetal distress: In this condition babyâ€™s heart rate is getting down, It may cause severe risk to baby. Nuchal cord: it is a common complications that happens during child birth. In this case the umbilical cord wraps around the neck of baby. So doctors has to put special effort to this case. Breech : in this condition the babyâ€™s delivery position is changed that means the baby delivered with their head down.
Requirements of parturition:
Nowadays the changing life style and food habits makes our health very critical. Maintaining both mother and babyâ€™s health is challenging during pregnancy. So consuming good nutrients are very important. excessive weight gain or obesity (fat) leads to severe cardioimetablic risk.
Protein plays a major part in pregnancy it requires more attention during this period. It is very much helpful to maintain maternal tissues and fatal growth. Especially in third trimester consuming protein rich foods and vegetables improves the health condition. Low intake of protein leads to negative effects on birth, that means it affects the weight and height of the baby. Excess amount also very injurious to health it affects the fetal development.
Fat also plays key role in pregnancy adequate amount of fat is more important for the infant growth and fetal development. For example fat which contain docosa hexaenoic acid (DHA) is very much essential for the development of brain and retina.
A pregnant woman needs micronutrient more than that of macronutrients.
The biological role of iron is transferring oxygen to various tissues. Oxygen is very important to fetus tissues also. Anemia (Iron deficiency) is caused by the low amount of iron in the circulation. Foods which containing iron are meat, fish legumes and green leafy vegetables.
Iodine is the main component of thyroid hormone is important for the function of growth, formation and development of organs and tissues. An inadequate amount of iodine consumption can leads to increase of pituitary thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and goiter. Sources of iodine are sea fish, milk, eggs, and meat.
Calcium is very much important for bone to maintain bone mass in adult stage. 99% of calcium is present in skeleton and teeth. For calcium metabolism vitamin D is must. calcium insufficiency causes the disease rickets. Then, the sources of calcium are milk, cereals and vegetables. It is helpful for fetal development and the period of pregnancy and lactation.
At the first stage pregnancy vitamin D is recommended for all pregnant women because it modulates the immune system. Vitamin D rich foods are cod liver oil, pork liver, eggs, butter, high fat and cheese.
Folic acids plays a major role in DNA and RNA synthesis and amino acid metabolism. In sufficient amount of folic acid give rise to anemia, leucopenia and thromnocytopenia. Folates found in green leafy vegetables, and fruit cereals. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy reduced the risk of some kind of heart disease and supports the proper development of the placenta.
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