It has been examined that the movement of water will be from the region of high water potential, i.e., having a less negative value, to the region where the water potential is lower, i.e., having a high negative value; this movement is called osmosis.
For instance, there is a cell surrounded by a hypertonic solution; this would mean less water potential because of high solute concentration than the inside portion of the cell.
Suppose that the membrane of the cell is permeable, which means water can pass through it. Then, the movement of water will be from the inside portion of the cell where water potential is large, to the outside portion where water potential is low. Because of this, cells can die in living organisms.
In another case, if this cell is surrounded by pure water, then it will take in water to the point where it bursts and dies. So, there is a requirement of such an environment for cells where solute concentrations do not significantly differ.
Through osmoregulation, the concentration of solute has been regulated in human bodies, which results in the maintenance and control of the concentration of salt and water to keep humans alive.
Water potential components
There are three components that influence the water potential in plants: matric potential, pressure potential, and osmotic potential.
Matric potential: The quantum or amount of water potential that decreases in any solution due to matric forces is known as matric potential. It is represented by \psi \tauÏˆÏ„ , always having negative value.
Pressure potential: The increase of the amount of water potential due to the addition of more water in any cell is known as pressure potential. It is represented by \psi _pÏˆ
, having positive values.
Osmotic potential: The decrease of the amount of water potential due to the addition of more solute is known as osmotic potential. It is represented by \psi _\piÏˆ
orâ€‹ \psi _sÏˆ
â€‹ having negative values.
Therefore, value of water potential is given by
\psi = \psi _\tau + \psi _p + \psi _\piÏˆ=Ïˆ
But the value of matric potential for living cell is zero,
\psi = \psi _p + \psi _\piÏˆ=Ïˆ
So, water potential is equal to the sum of pressure potential and osmotic potential.
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